New Delhi, Fresh News India: Zika virus is transmitted by mosquito bites and this infection usually occurs in tropical (tropical) and sub-tropical (sub-tropical) regions. Most patients with Zika virus do not show any signs, but some may have mild fever, rash, and muscle pain. There may be other symptoms, such as headache, conjunctivitis and feeling restless. Know the Zika Virus 2021: What is Zika Virus?, Cases in India, Spread, Zika Virus Symptoms, Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications.
Infection with the Zika virus during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage. It can also lead to “microcephaly” in which the head of the fetus or newborn becomes abnormally small. Zika virus can also cause other brain disorders, such as “Guillain Barre syndrome”. Scientists are trying to make a vaccine for the Zika virus. Until then, the best way to prevent this is to avoid mosquitoes and prevent their breeding. Zika virus is spread by a mosquito called Aedes, which also spreads dengue and let us tell you its symptoms and methods of prevention, so that you should be alert.
Zika Virus cases in India in 2021
Zika Virus India: As of July 31, 2021, health authorities in the Indian state of Kerala have declared a state of alert in all districts after identifying 62 cases of Zika virus. Kerala Health Minister Veena George confirmed the infection in Thiruvananthapuram district. All new cases in the district have been reported among health workers.
Zika Virus India: A woman found infected with Zika virus in Maharashtra was already suffering from Chikungunya. The medical team visited his village. Zika Virus has knocked in Maharashtra. The first case of Zika virus infection has been found in Pune. Officials said that the test report of a 50-year-old woman living in Belsar village of Purandar tehsil came out on Friday. According to the report, apart from Zika infection, she was also suffering from Chikungunya. Earlier India reported an outbreak of Zika in the western state of Gujarat in 2016-17.
How does Zika Virus Spread?
According to the American organization CDC, the Zika virus can spread in any of these ways –
- Mosquito Bites – Zika virus is mainly transmitted to people by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae aegypti and Ae albopictus). These are the same mosquitoes that spread the dengue and chikungunya viruses.
- From mother to fetus – Pregnant women already infected with Zika virus can pass the virus to the fetus during pregnancy or at birth.
- Through sex – Zika infection can be transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected partner during sex, even if the infected person does not have symptoms at the time. Therefore, it is better to follow all the rules of safe sex, such as using a condom.
- Via blood transfusion – There have been several reports of Zika transmission in Brazil due to possible blood transfusion.
What are the Symptoms of Zika Virus?
Up to 80 percent of Zika virus patients do not show any symptoms, even two to seven days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The main symptoms of Zika virus are:
- Mild fever
- Red spots
- Pain in the joints or muscles
- Other symptoms may be:
- Red Eyes
Most of the patients make a complete recovery within a week.
When to see a Doctor?
Contact your doctor if you or a family member suspects you of contracting Zika virus, especially if you have recently been to an outbreak. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts blood tests to detect Zika virus and other similar diseases, such as dengue and chikungunya, which are transmitted by the bite of the same type of mosquito.
What Causes of Zika Virus?
The Zika virus is mainly transmitted through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. This mosquito is found all over the world. It was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Valley of Africa, but since then cases of infection have been reported in South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands and the American continents. When a mosquito bites an infected person, the virus passes inside the mosquito. And then the virus enters the blood of anyone the infected mosquito bites. There have also been cases of transmission of infection through sexual intercourse and blood transfusion.
The risk of infection with Zika virus is high in the following circumstances:
Living or traveling in an area with an outbreak of Zika virus-
Living in tropical or subtropical areas can put you at increased risk of getting Zika virus infection. The mosquito that transmits Zika virus is found all over the world, so it is possible that new areas of outbreak will continue to come. Mosquitoes that transmit Zika virus are also found in some areas of the United States, including Puerto Rico and South Florida. (Read more – Treatment of Nipah virus infection)
There have been a few sporadic cases of Zika virus transmission through sexual intercourse. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that a person who has recently had an outbreak of Zika virus should avoid having sex with a pregnant woman or use a condom during this time.
Prevention of Zika Virus
There is no vaccine to protect against Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises pregnant women to avoid traveling to areas with Zika virus outbreaks. If you are trying to conceive, talk to your doctor about your travel plans and your risk of Zika virus infection.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that if one’s male partner lives in a place where Zika virus infection has spread or has come through those areas, he should avoid sex during pregnancy or use condoms during this time. should be used.
If you live in or travel to an area prone to Zika virus, take the following precautions:
- Stay in air conditioned or completely protected from insects – Mosquitoes that spread Zika virus are mostly active from dawn to dusk but they can also bite at night. If you are outside in an open area, sleep under a mosquito net.
- Wear clothing that covers the entire body – Wear a full-sleeved shirt, long pants, socks and shoes if you go to an area with a lot of mosquitoes.
- Use Mosquito Repellent Creams – You can use permethrin on your clothing, shoes, camping equipment and mosquito nets. You can also buy clothing that already has permethrin in it. For use on the skin, use a cream that has 10 percent deet content. When used as directed by experts, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved creams have been found to be safe for pregnant and lactating women as well.
- Prevent Mosquitoes Growing Nearby – Mosquitoes that spread Zika virus live in or near homes. They thrive in water stored in animal food utensils, pots or used tires etc. Prevent mosquito breeding to reduce the number of mosquitoes.
Zika Virus infection through Blood transfusion
Pre-donation tests now include testing for Zika virus. Where Zika virus infection has not spread, to reduce the risk of transmission, the US Food and Drug Administration recommends not donating blood for four weeks in the following circumstances:
- If ever infected with Zika virus
- lived in or traveled to a place infected with Zika virus
- Begins to show symptoms of Zika virus two weeks after coming from a place infected with Zika virus
- Have sex with a man who is suffering from Zika virus infection
- Have sex with a man who has lived in or came from a place infected with the Zika virus in the past three months
Diagnosis of Zika Virus
The doctor can take the details of the ailments and travels you have had so far. Tell the doctor about your international travels, such as the countries you have visited, the date you have had sex with, and if you have been to any places where mosquitoes have lived. Ask your doctor about facilities available in your area to test for Zika or similar diseases, such as dengue or chikungunya. These diseases are caused by the bite of a mosquito of the same species. If a pregnant woman has recently been to a Zika-infected place and is currently showing no symptoms of Zika virus, she can be tested two to 12 weeks after her return.
If the test is confirming the presence of Zika virus or not, or if nothing is being detected, then the doctor may do the following tests:
- Ultrasound to check for microcephaly or other abnormalities of the fetal brain
- Testing for Zika virus by inserting a needle into a pregnant woman’s uterus by removing amniotic fluid (Amniocentesis)
Treatment for Zika Virus
There is currently no treatment available for infection with the Zika virus. Generally, the treatment of Zika is only symptomatic. As a treatment for Zika virus, the patient is advised to rest and drink fluids and is given acetaminophen and ibuprofen based medicines to relieve joint pain and fever.
There is no vaccine yet to protect against the Zika virus.
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage and microcephaly (smaller than normal brain size).
Zika virus can cause congenital Zika syndrome, which can lead to the following disorders
- Severe microcephaly in which the head becomes slightly flattened
- Damage to the brain and loss of brain cells
- Damage to the eyes
- Problems in the joints that make walking difficult
- Decreased physical activity of the child due to excessive muscle tension after birth
The information provided here is not a substitute for any medical advice. It is being given only for the purpose of education.